【韦白翻译作品遭“抄袭”质疑:莫让诗歌蒙羞】- 上海语通翻译有限公司
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韦白翻译作品遭“抄袭”质疑:莫让诗歌蒙羞

闵雪飞和杨铁军发表公开信,质疑韦白翻译作品“抄袭”。都说天下文章一大抄。抄还是借,这真是一个问题。
译者韦白翻译葡萄牙诗人费尔南多·佩索阿(Fernando Pessoa)的诗集《我的心略大于整个宇宙》出版,另两位译者闵雪飞和杨铁军发表公开信,质疑韦氏“抄袭”。韦译的佩索阿诗集以英译本为底本,部分诗歌确实和杨译的非常雷同。还有人指出,韦白此前翻译狄兰·托马斯的诗,也和前辈翻译家巫宁坤的译本极其相似。随后韦白发了一封《致闵雪飞的公开信》和一篇《我的道歉书》,承认部分参考,但不认为是抄袭。
翻译这个行当颇有些类似房产中介,在买家和卖家不见面的情况下居中勾兑。外国文学作品的翻译,也是个两头不见面的买卖。受外语水平所限,中国读者很难直接阅读原文,只能接受翻译者的服务。不过这种服务质量的好坏很大程度依赖于翻译者的职业素质和水准。王小波在《我的师承》开头专门说到译笔的差异对他的影响,他举的例子是普希金的《青铜骑士》。查良铮先生译为:我爱你,彼得兴建的大城/我爱你严肃整齐的面容/涅瓦河的水流多么庄严/大理石铺在它的两岸……而另外一人则译为:我爱你彼得的营造/我爱你庄严的外貌……
这两篇翻译虽然水准相去甚远,但说到底,都是费了心思的。只不过一个是看了会心一笑,另一个看了开心大笑。王小波先生去世也早,没有看到更奇葩的翻译,但是我见过:上大学的某个暑假,我去看望外语系的女同学。当时她们正在奋笔疾书搞翻译,据说是某出版社重译世界名著经典的活儿。令我惊奇的是她们的手中根本没有这些名著的原文,而是一堆汉译本她们在干的事儿是“汉译汉”。女同学向我传授此种翻译的绝招:长句打散成短句,短句合成长句;被动句换成主动句,主动句换成被动句。这种“汉译汉”的速度极快,和打字差不多,三五个人个把月就可以搞完十来本,推上市场很快就能赚上一笔钱。
当然这个私人经验不能说明整个翻译界,甚至可能也只是一个非常极端的例子。我只想说翻译或者说再创作这种事儿,在没有约束的情形下会变得多么不靠谱。
王小波感慨中国最好的文字存在于已故的翻译家笔下,王道乾先生和查良铮先生虽然去世了,这样美好的汉语却可以留在世间。汉字的惊奇之处在于,它如此的多变,在上面改动一个字,可能都不会影响整个句子的表达。但倘若因此而让抄袭成为捷径,这真是有辱斯文。韦白在《致闵雪飞的公开信》中说,“诗歌翻译是一项很难的工作”。行业的艰难存在,但也不该是“借鉴”(我宁愿用这个词)的借口。正是因为其艰难,同道之间才应相互尊重,相互支撑。诗歌是文学中最纯洁的一种文体,伟大的诗歌极少功利。佩索阿说,“让我们单纯而平静,就像溪流与树木。”如果文字在印出之前已经让道德蒙羞,再美的诗句也让我们心神不安。

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